Welcome to Peru

Lima Library © G Raisman


Name in Local Language Lima
Geographical Location
Valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, in a valley on a prevalent desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
Interesting Facts :
In the pre-Columbian era, the location of what is now the city of Lima was inhabited by several Amerindian groups under the Ychsma polity, which was incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century.  In 1532, a group of Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his Empire.  Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543.
Main Sites:
Historic Centre, Monastery of San Francisco, the Plaza Mayor, the Cathedral, Covenant of Santo Domingo, the Palace of Torre Tagle.
Peru Flag  Cusco Blue House © G Raisman


Name in Local Language : Cuzco
Language Written Locally : Qusqu
Geographical Location : 
Southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region as well as the Cuzco Province. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft).
Population : 358,935
Interesting Facts :
The Killke occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Incas in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Sacsayhuaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, has demonstrated that the Killke culture constructed the fortress about 1100. The Inca later expanded and occupied the complex in the 13th century and after.
Main Sites:
Walled complex of Sacsayhuaman, Inca Temples of the Sun and of the Virgins of the Sun, Pachacuti's presumed winter home of Machu Picchu.
Weaving Peru © G Raisman







Official Language :  Spanish

Other Languages Spoken :
Abishira, Achuar-Shiwiar, Aguano, Aguaruna, Ajyíninka Apurucayali, Amahuaca, Amarakaeri, Andoa, Arabela, Asháninka, Ashéninka Pajonal, Ashéninka Perené, Ashéninka Pichis, Ashéninka South Ucayali, Ashéninka Ucayali-Yurúa, Aushiri, Aymara Central, Aymara Southern, Bora, Cahuarano, Candoshi-Shapra, Capanahua, Caquinte, Cashibo-Cacataibo, Chamicuro, Chayahuita, Cholón, Cocama-Cocamilla, Culina, Ese Ejja, Hibito, Huachipaeri, Huambisa, Huitoto Murui, Huitoto Nüpode, Iñapari, Iquito, Isconahua, Jaqaru, Jebero, Kashinawa, Machiguenga, Mashco Piro, Matsés, Muniche, Nanti, Nomatsiguenga, Ocaina, Omagua, Omurano, Orejón, Panobo, Pisabo, Quechua, Quechua- Ambo-Pasco, Quechua-Arequipa-La Unión, Quechua-Ayacucho, Quechua-Cajamarca, Quechua-Cajatambo North Lima, Quechua-Chachapoyas, Quechua-Chaupihuaranga, Quechua-Chincha, Quechua-Chiquián Ancash, Quechua-Classical, Quechua-Corongo Ancash, Quechua-Cusco, Quechua-Eastern Apurímac, Quechua-Huallaga Huánuco, Quechua-Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco, Quechua-Huaylas Ancash, Quechua-Huaylla Wanca, Quechua-Jauja Wanca, Quechua-Lambayeque, Quechua-Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha, Quechua-Napo Lowland, Quechua-North Junín, Quechua-Northern Conchucos Ancash, Quechua-Pacaraos, Quechua-Panao Huánuco, Quechua-Puno, Quechua-San Martín, Quechua-Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco, Quechua-Sihuas Ancash, Quechua-Southern Conchucos Ancash, Quechua-Southern Pastaza, Quechua-Yauyos, Quichua-Northern Pastaza, Remo, Resígaro, Secoya, Sensi, Sharanahua, Shipibo-Conibo, Spanish-Loreto-Ucayali, Taushiro, Ticuna, Urarina, Yagua, Yameo, Yaminahua, Yanesha’, Yine, Yora.


Country Name in Local Language : Perú
Official Language :  Spanish
Currency : Nuevo Sol (S/.)
Capital City :  Lima
Population : 29,399,817
 Total Area Covered :  1,285,220 km²
 Highest Point :  Huascarán (6,768 m)
 Telephone Calling Code :  +51
Internet TLD :  .pe
National Food :
Ceviche Quinoa, potatoes, tomatoes, chilli peppers all come from Peru.
National Flower :
Cantuta (kantuta or qantuta), (Latin: Cantua buxifolia).


National Anthem
Somos libres, seámoslo siempre,
y antes niegue sus luces el sol
que faltemos al voto solemne
que la patria al Eterno elevó.

Largo tiempo el peruano oprimido
la ominosa cadena arrastró
condenado a cruel servidumbre
largo tiempo en silencio gimió.
Mas apenas el grito sagrado
¡Libertad! en sus costas se oyó,
la indolencia de esclavo sacude,
la humillada cerviz levantó.

We are free! May we always be so, may we always be so!
and let the sun rather deny its light
its lights, its lights...the sun!
Before allow us to break the solemn vow
which the motherland elevated to the Eternal

For a long time the oppressed Peruvian
dragged the ominous chain;
sentenced to a cruel servitude
for a long time in silence he moaned.
But as soon as the sacred cry
"Liberty!" was heard on its coasts,
he shook off the indolence of slavery,
the humiliated neck he raised!


Peru is in western South America, bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 years BCE.  It was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.


Machu Pichu © G Raisman


Geographical Location
2,430 metres (7,970 ft) above sea level on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cusco and through which the Urubamba River flows.
Population : N/A
Interesting Facts :
Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). Often referred to as the "City of the Incas", it is perhaps the most familiar icon of Inca civilization. 
The central buildings of Machu Picchu use the classical Inca architectural style of polished dry-stone walls of regular shape. The Incas were masters of this technique, called ashlar, in which blocks of stone are cut to fit together tightly without mortar. Many junctions in the central city are so perfect that it is said not even a blade of grass fits between the stones.
Main Sites:
The ruins of Machu Picchu are divided into two main sections known as the Urban and Agricultural Sectors, divided by a wall. The Agricultural Sector is further subdivided into Upper and Lower sectors, while the Urban Sector is split into East and West sectors, separated by wide plazas.
Woman Peru © G Raisman Lake Titicaca © G Raisman


Geographical Location
The lake is located at the northern end of the endorheic Altiplano basin high in the Andes on the border of Peru and Bolivia. The western part of the lake lies within the Puno Region of Peru, and the eastern side is located in the Bolivian La Paz Department.

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